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People who are exposed to asbestos fibers are prone to skin irritation caused by asbestos fibers. Asbestos dust entering the body will cause pneumonia. When you get sick, the patient has symptoms of shortness of breath, dry cough, sputum and difficulty breathing. Patients with severe chest pain, fast heart beat, weight loss, lung function significantly reduced.
In Vietnam, asbestos is mainly used to produce asbestos-cement roofing sheets, a product that is used extensively for roofing in rural and mountainous areas. Since the 1960s, Vietnam began to produce and use asbestos products. Currently, the country has about 40 facilities, enterprises manufacturing asbestos-cement roofing with a capacity of over 70 million square meters per year, attracting a workforce of more than 10,000 people.
Because of the hazardous properties of asbestos with human health, many countries in the world (especially developed countries) no longer use asbestos to produce products. In Vietnam, since 2004 all factories manufacturing asbestos-cement roofing are under strict control of the environment and health (Decision 115 of the Prime Minister). In particular, the Government banned the use of asbestos amber (green asbestos) in production (Decision 113 of the Prime Minister).
The results of the survey of working environment in some of the most recent asbestos-cement roofing materials showed that asbestos levels in the air were reduced due to the application of advanced technology such as wet technology and sealed mills. . However, there are still many private establishments producing asbestos-cement roofing sheets that do not have control measures. Asbestos contamination is very high (ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 fibers per ml).
To protect the health of workers in asbestos-containing environments, in addition to improving working conditions, limiting the spread of asbestos dust into the air, workers need to use personal protective equipment (PTBs). ), especially respiratory protective equipment of high quality.
1. ASB standards related to asbestos.
At present, there are no specific regulations on the quality of PTF for asbestos exposure.
In Decision No. 955/1998 / QD-BLDTBXH of September 22, 1998 of the Minister of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs promulgating the list of equipment for PTBs for laborers engaged in occupations and jobs involving risk factors hazardous wastes, PTBs shall be allocated to workers exposed to asbestos as follows:
- Section IV.2 for open-pit mining and mining, mining and quarrying: fabric clothing; hat or hat against rain; canvas gloves; low-top canvas shoes; gauze mask; raincoat; soap.
- Section XXI.1 for the operation of asbestos, cement: cloth clothes; coif; white dustproof or mechanical injury prevention; canvas shoes; Socks and Soap.
However, the provisions of Decision 955/1998 / QD-BLDTBXH do not specify the quality requirements of PTBs equipped for laborers, including exposure to asbestos, a risk factor for cancer. high.
In addition, a number of research institutions have developed methods and equipment systems to assess the quality of some types of PTBs, which help regulators, producers as well as employers Check the quality of PTBs in production as well as before use.
2. The supply and use of dust masks in the market
At present, there are hundreds of types of PTBs being circulated, including domestically produced goods and imported goods, including some foreign ones having agents in Vietnam. Generally, the goods are quite diversified and diversified with different types and models. However, due to the lack of strict management, they are not checked for quality. Therefore, the goods are floating, the origin is unknown. There are no quality certificates, lack of catalogs and information needed for the users occupy a very high rate.
Compared with the types of PTBs that are required to meet the requirements of the industries and jobs listed in the State regulations, we can produce only domestically and some special types, many types of PTBs must be imported from abroad. Only the number of PTBVCN can produce in the country, many kinds of poor quality, not up to standards, shapes, models are bad, not labeled. Many types of products of unknown origin, no manufacturer name, no name, no specifications, technical requirements, no shelf life.
Over the past years, many businesses (mostly private) have made efforts to supply the market with many types of dust masks. In addition, some businesses have imported some types of dust masks to supply to the domestic market. Table 1 below shows some common types of dust masks on the domestic market and the dust filter efficiency of that mask - the most important indicator of the dust filter.
Table 1. Filter efficiency and respiratory resistance of some types of masks in the market.
Filter dust mask